Rise and Fall of the Valois Duchy of Burgundy, Second Part, 1363-1477, the Fall.
The last Valois Duke of Burgundy, Charles the Bold (1433-1467-1477), also called Charles le Téméraire, Karl der Kühne, Karel the Stoute.
Charles the Bold was born in Dijon. In his father’s lifetime he bore the title of Count of Charolais. Afterwards, he assumed all of his father’s titles. He was made a Knight of the Golden Fleece just twenty days after his birth. In 1440, at the age of seven, he was married to Catherine, daughter of Charles VII, King of France (1403-1422-1461) and sister of the Dauphin, the future Louis XI, King of France (1423-1461-1483). She was five years older than her husband, and she died in 1446 at the age of 18. They had no children. In 1554, at the age of 21, Charles the Bold married Isabella of Bourbon, a choice of his father Philip the Good. She was the daughter of Philip’s the Good sister, and a very distant cousin of Charles VII, King of France. Isabella died in 1465. Their daughter, Mary (1457-1482), was Charles’ only surviving child. Mary became heiress (January 1477) to all Burgundian domains prior to marrying (August 1477) Maximilian I of Habsburg (1459-1519, from 1477 iure uxoris Duke of Burgundy, 1486 King of the Romans (also known as King of the Germans), 1493 Archduke of Austria, 1508 Holy Roman Emperor). Charles the Bold was on familiar terms with his brother-in-law, the Dauphin, when the latter was a refugee at the court of Burgundy from 1456 until 1461. But as King of France, Louis began to pursue the same policies as his father. When Philip’s the Good failing health enabled Charles to take into his hands the reins of government (1465), he entered into his lifelong struggle against the French King Louis XI. With his father gone, Charles decided to marry (1468) as his third wife Margaret of York (1446-1503), who was his second cousin, they both being descended from John of Gaunt, Duke of Lancaster (1340-1399). Charles was made Knight of the Garter. The couple had no children, but Margaret devoted herself to her stepdaughter Mary. After Mary’s death (1482) she kept Mary’s two infant children as long as she was allowed. She was the only of the three wives of Charles the Bold to be Duchess consort of Burgundy, the two first wives having died before Charles’s the Bold accession, thus being known as Countesses consort of Charolais.
Portrait of Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy (1433-1467-1477), by Rogier van der Weyden (1399/1400-1464), oil on oak, circa 1461-1462.
Portrait of Catherine of Valois (1428-1446), Countess of Charolais, the first wife of Charles the Bold and daughter of Charles VII, King of France (1403-1422-1461), anonymous.
Portrait of Isabella of Bourbon (1437-1465), Countess of Charolais, the second wife of Charles the Bold, French school, 17th century.
Portrait of Margaret of York, Duchess of Burgundy (1446-1503), the third wife of Charles the Bold, anonymous, oil on wood, circa 1468.
Portrait of Mary of Burgundy (1457-1482), heiress to all Burgundian domains (1477), workshop of the Magdalen Legend, 15th century.
Portrait of Maximilian I of Habsburg, Holy Roman Emperor (1459-1508-1519), by Albrecht Dürer (1471-1528), 1519. Maximilian holds his personal emblem, the pomegranate.
In 1465, Philip the Good relinquished government to his son Charles the Bold. Charles wished to defend the interests of the League of the Public Weal, consisting of the representatives of the higher nobility of France. As figurehead of the league acted Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, and Charles, Duke of Berry (1446-1472), the younger brother of the French King Louis XI. The goal was to counteract the politics of Louis XI, who wanted to fully concentrate political power on the king. The battle of Montlhéry (1465), in which the League of the Public Weal fought against the French King Louis XI, left Charles the Bold master of the field. But it did neither assure Charles a decisive victory, nor prevented it the King from re-entering Paris. However, Charles could enforce upon Louis the treaty of Conflans (1465), by which the King restored to him the towns on the Somme, the Counties of Boulogne and Guînes, and various other small territories. In 1465, Dinant, in the Prince-Bishopric of Liège, had celebrated a false rumour that Charles had been defeated at Montlhéry chanting that he was the bastard of Duchess Isabel and John of Heinsburg, the Prince-Bishop of Liège. In 1466, Charles marched into Dinant and sacked the city, killing every man, woman and child within. In 1467, the Prince-Bishopric of Liège renewed hostilities, but Charles defeated it’s troops at the battle of Brustem. Afterwards, Louis XI wanted to settle various questions related to the treaty of Conflans. He requested a meeting with Charles and placed himself in the hands of Charles at Péronne. During the negotiations, the Duke was informed of a fresh revolt of the Prince-Bishopric of Liège secretly fomented by Louis XI. Charles decided to respect the parole he had given to Louis and to negotiate with him, at the same time forcing him to assist in quelling the revolt (1468). The town of Liège was carried by assault and the inhabitants were massacred. Louis did not intervene on behalf of his former allies. Charles lost no opportunity to extend his power. In 1469, Sigismund of Habsburg (1427-1496, from 1446 Duke of “Vorderösterreich”, 1446-1490 Ruler of Tyrol, 1477 Archduke of “Vorderösterreich”) sold him the County of Ferrette, the Breisgau and the Sundgau together with some additional towns, reserving himself the right to repurchase. In 1472-1473, Charles bought the right to succeed to the Duchy of Guelders from its duke, Arnold, whom he had supported against the rebellions of his son. His goal was to form a Kingdom of Burgundy or Arles with himself as independent sovereign, and even persuaded Holy Roman Emperor Frederick III of Habsburg (1415-1452-1493) to assent to crown him King at Trier. The ceremony, however, did not take place due to the emperor’s precipitate flight, occasioned by his displeasure at the Duke’s attitude. At the end of 1474, Charles’s Duchy was anchored in France and extended to the edges of the Netherlands. Charles the Bold was now one of the wealthiest and most powerful nobles in Europe.
Battle of Montlhéry (1465), miniature from the Chronicles of Montlhéry (1489-1491), by Philip of Commynes.
Sigismund of Habsburg (1427-1496, from 1446 Duke of “Vorderösterreich”, 1446-1490 Ruler of Tyrol, 1477 Archduke of “Vorderösterreich”), by Wolfgang Kilian (1581-1663), copper-plate engraving, 1623.
Portrait of Frederick III of Habsburg, Holy Roman Emperor (1415-1452-1493), by Hans Burgkmair (1473-1531), about 1500.
In the years to follow Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy (1433-1467-1477), embroiled himself with Duke Sigismund of Habsburg (1427-1446-1496), and Duke René II of Lorraine (1451-1473-1508), as well as the four Alsatian Free Cities of the Holy Roman Empire Basel, Colmar, Sélestat and Strasbourg, and last but not least with the Swiss Confederates. All these and additional enemies, were orchestrated and supported by Louis XI, King of France (1423-1461-1483). They joined their forces against their common enemy Charles the Bold.
In the endeavour to protect his kinsman, Ruprecht of the Palatinate, Archbishop of Cologne, against his rebel subjects, Charles spent ten months (1474-1475) besieging the little town of Neuss on the Rhine, but was compelled by the approach of a powerful imperial army to raise the siege. In addition, the expedition he had persuaded his brother-in-law, Edward IV (1442-1483, King of England from 1461 to 1470 and again from 1471- to 1483), to undertake against Louis XI was stopped by the treaty of Picquigny (1475), in which Louis XI was to pay Edward IV 75’000 crowns upfront, essentially a bribe to return to England and not to take up arms to pursue his claim to the French throne. On the other hand, in Lorraine Charles the Bold was successful. He seized Nancy in 1475.
Posthumous portrait of Edward IV (1442-1483, King of England from 1461 to 1470 and again from 1471 to 1483), circa 1520 after an original from circa 1470-1475.
In the meantime, the four Alsatian Free Cities of the Holy Roman Empire Basel, Colmar, Sélestat and Strasbourg decided in 1473 to form an alliance, called “Niedere Vereinigung”, against Charles the Bold. The Prince-Bishops of Basel and Strasbourg joined in rapidly. Kaisersberg and Obernai also wanted to adhere, as well as other smaller Alsatian cities. End of March 1474 the eight “Orte” of the Swiss Confederation (Uri (1291), Schwyz (1291), Unterwalden (1291), Luzern (1332), Zürich (1351), Glarus (1352), Zug (1352), Bern (1353)) followed up, and after the treaty of Constance (April 1474) Duke Sigismund of Habsburg became a member of the alliance of the “Niedere Vereinigung” as well. Part and parcel of this treaty was that the four cities Basel, Colmar, Sélestat and Strasbourg had to hand over to Sigismund of Habsburg 76’000 gulden, in order to enable him to buy back the parts of “Vorderösterreich” (Breisgau, Ferrette, Sundgau etc.) he had sold to Charles the Bold. René II, Duke of Lorraine joined this alliance as well. The leaders of this alliance, called “Niedere Vereinigung”, were Basel, Strasbourg, Bern and Luzern. Instrumental in bringing together all these partners was the French King Louis XI. In addition, with the Swiss Confederates and two of the Associates (“zugewandte Orte”) Fribourg and Solothurn he concluded a treaty (October 1474), which allowed him to recruit mercenaries in the Swiss Confederacy, and in which he put himself under the obligation to heavily finance the Swiss, provided they would enter the war against Charles the Bold, but only as long as he did not participate in this war. In 1474, Sigismund wanted to buy back his former possessions in “Vorderösterreich” with the money he had received from the four Alsatian Cities, but Charles refused.
ALLIANCE CALLED “NIEDERE VEREINIGUNG”
Four Alsatian Free Cities of the Holy Roman Empire (1473):
Two Prince-Bishops of the Holy Roman Empire (1473/1474):
The Swiss Confederacy (March 1474):
The Dukes of Austria and Lorraine (April 1474):
Sigismund of Habsburg, Duke of “Vorderösterreich” (1427-1446-1496)
René II, Duke of Lorraine (1451-1473-1508), participated in the battles of Morat and Nancy only.
Regular troops also fighting alongside the alliance in the battles of Héricourt, Grandson, Morat:
Appenzell (came too late for the battles of Grandson and Morat), Biel (Héricourt, Grandson, Morat), Fribourg (Héricourt, Grandson, Morat), Lindau, City of the Holy Roman Empire (Héricourt), Neuchâtel (Héricourt, Grandson, Morat), Rottweil, Free City of the Holy Roman Empire (Morat), Prince-Abbot of St. Gallen (Héricourt, Grandson, came too late for the battle of Morat), City of St. Gallen (Héricourt, Grandson, came too late for the battle of Morat), Schaffhausen (Grandson), Solothurn (Héricourt, Grandson, Morat), Villingen, City of the Holy Roman Empire (Héricourt)
Commander in chief for all of the four battles (Héricourt, Grandson, Murten, Nancy): Wilhelm Herter of Hertneck (1424 in Tübingen-1477 in Basel) from Dusslingen (south of Tübingen) and Ludwigsburg (north of Stuttgart).
Commander of the allied cavalry in Grandson, Morat and Nancy: Count Oswald of Thierstein (circa 1435-1488), bailiff of Austria in Alsace. In 1479, he obtained Hohkoenigsbourg, close to Sélestat, as feudal estate from Frederick III of Habsburg, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire (1415-1452-1493).
Louis XI, King of France (1423-1461-1483), was instrumental in bringing together and orchestrating the alliance. He did so with diplomacy, contacts and substantial amounts of finances. However, he never participated with troops in the battles of the alliance.
René II, Duke of Lorraine (1451-1473-1508), part of the frontispiece of the revue Lotharingia “Le duc de Lorraine René II et la construction d’un état princier”, 2008.
Wilhelm Herter of Hertneck (1424-1477) in the battle of Morat (1476), part of a picture from Big Cronicles of Burgundy, Diebold Schilling, Bern, around 1484, Facsimile p. 654, picture 158. William Herter of Hertneck is wearing a blue hat with white feathers, his bodyguard (in black) is walking behind him.
In the territories of “Vorderösterreich” (County of Ferrette, Breisgau and Sundgau) Charles the Bold instated as bailiff Peter of Hagenbach (circa 1420-1474), who had to administer the lands mortgaged by Sigismund of Habsburg, Duke of “Vorderösterreich”. His administration turned out to be a tyranny. Hagenbach was put on trial by an ad hoc tribunal of the Holy Roman Empire for the atrocities committed during the occupation of Breisach, found guilty of war crimes, and beheaded by the executioner of Colmar at Breisach am Rhein (1474). He was convicted of crimes “he as knight was deemed to have a duty to prevent”. This was the first “international” recognition of commanders’ to act lawfully.
The same year the alliance, called “Niedere Vereinigung”, attacked Héricourt, where Stephen of Hagenbach, the younger brother (born 1426) of Peter of Hagenbach, found refuge with his troups, after having systematically ravaged the Sundgau and thoroughly destroyed Bonfol (near Porrentruy, canton du Jura). With the attack by the troops of Basel and the alliance the Burgundian wars started on August 26, 1474. The league approached in two columns, one starting from Basel the other from Porrentruy. The commander in chief of the forces of the league (strength: circa 18’000, amongst them circa 8’000 Swiss (only infantry), cavalry from Austria and the four Alsatian Free Cities as well as the two Bishoprics of Basel and Strasbourg, artillery from Austria and the four Alsatian Free Cities) was Wilhelm Herter von Hertneck (1424-1477), a scion of a family domicilated in the castles of Dusslingen (south of Tübingen, D) and Hertneck (Ludwigsburg, north of Stuttgart, D). The alliance first laid a siege to Héricourt. When the Burgundian forces approached (strength: circa 12’000, amongst them 5’000 Italians from the Count of Romont), placed under the leadership of Henry of Neuchâtel-Blâmont, the alliance attacked. The Burgundian forces were decisively pushed back in two encounters (November 1474). Afterwards, the city of Héricourt surrendered and came back in Habsburg hands.
Alliance at the battle of Héricourt (1474), Big Chronicles of Burgundy, Diebold Schilling the Elder, Bern, around 1484, Facsimile p. 217, picture 45. After having attacked once again the Burgundian forces leave the battle field (right hand side).
The city of Héricourt is handed over to the alliance and returns in Habsburg hands (1474), Big Chronicles of Burgundy, Diebold Schilling the Elder, Bern, around 1484, Facsimile p. 222, picture 46. The garrison is allowed to retreat orderly with honours of war.
Alliance marching out from Basel towards Blâmont (summer 1475), Big Chronicles of Burgundy, Diebold Schilling the Elder, Bern, around 1484, Facsimile p. 316, picture 68. Bottom: infantry from the Swiss Confederates and Freiburg and Solothurn. Top: infantry from Strasbourg, Prince-Bishopric of Basel, Austria, followed by the trumpets (Austria and Strasbourg) of Count Oswald of Thierstein with the allied cavalry.
In August 1475, the treaty of Picquigny was signed between Louis XI and Edward IV, King of England (1442-1483). Afterwards, Edward IV left the continent having received the upfront payment of 75’000 crowns from Louis XI.
In September 1475, Louis XI, King of France, concluded an armistice agreement with Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, running for nine years. Louis XI invited the Swiss Confederates to join in as well. But Duke Sigismund of Habsburg and the four Alsatian Free Cities were excluded from the agreement. The Swiss Confederacy decided to stay in the alliance, called “Niedere Vereinigung”.
In October 1475, Bernese forces, taking advantage of the synchronously ongoing campaign of the alliance towards Blâmont (Lorraine), started to conquer and to ravage the Vaud, which belonged to the Duchy of Savoy, who was allied with Charles the Bold. In the Valais, the independent republics of “Sieben Zenden”, with help from Confederate forces, drove the Savoyards out of the lower Valais after a victory in the battle on the Planta (1475).
In November 1475, Charles the Bold did take Nancy and had a triumphal entry into the city.
Retaliating in 1476, Charles marched with his army against the alliance, called “Niedere Vereinigung”. His goal was Grandson which belonged to Pierre of Romont of Savoy, but which had recently been conquered by the Confederates. Charles attacked, overcame and took control the city and the castle. He had the Confederate garrison hanged and drowned in the lake despite their capitulation. When the forces of the alliance (strength: circa 18’000 infantry, cavalry and artillery from the four Alsatian Free Cities, the Duke of “Vorderösterreich”, and the two Bishoprics of Basel and Strasbourg only) arrived a few days later, Charles (strength circa 20’000 (infantry, cavalry, artillery and English longbows)) was defeated in the battle of Grandson (March 1476). He was forced to flee the battlefield, leaving behind his artillery and many provisions and valuables. The commander in chief of the forces of the alliance was once again Wilhelm Herter of Hertneck (1424-1477). The leader of the allied cavalry was Count Oswald of Thierstein, the bailiff of Austria in Alsace.
On April 26, 1476, the troops from Basel with their artillery join the Confederates forces besieging Grandson, Big Chronicles of Burgundy, Diebold Schilling the Elder, Bern, around 1484, Facsimile page 272, picture 59. The banners of Bern, Solothurn and Fribourg are flying over the camp of the besiegers.
Overview of the battle of Grandson (1476), Chronicles of Luzern, Diebold Schilling the Younger, 1511-1513, Facsimile between folio 99v and 100r picture on two pages.
Detail from the overview of battle of Grandson (1476), cf. above, Count Oswald of Thierstein (circa 1435-1488), with a tuft of white feathers on his helmet.
Detail from the overview of the battle of Grandson (1476), cf. above, Infantry with their banners, in front Solothurn followed by the City of St. Gallen, Fribourg, Luzern, Zürich, upper row: Unterwalden, Zug, Basel, Strasbourg, Austria, bottom row: Schwyz, Uri, Glarus
Charles the Bold reorganised his tangled but otherwise mainly intact army at Lausanne. End of May 1476, Charles the Bold felt again ready to march against the alliance called “Niedere Vereinigung”. He wanted to recover his territories in the Vaud and then attack the city of Bern, his greatest enemy among the Confederates. His first objective was Murten. On June 11, 1476, the Burgundians laid a siege to the well-prepared town, whose forces were commanded by the Bernese Adrian von Bubenberg. The Burgundian bombards slowly reduced the walls to rubble. Nevertheless the town continued to hold strong. Charles had prepared an elaborate plan to meet the enemy. Behind a solid ditch and palisade entrenchment known as the Grünhag, stood the bulk of Charles’ infantry and artillery not engaged in the besieging of Murten. These were to fight the alliance pike and halberd blocks to a halt, while on the right the massed cavalry would then flank the frontally engaged enemy, thus creating a killing ground from which there was no escape. On the side of the alliance, the last to arrive at the meeting point in Ulmiz (canton of Fribourg) were the troops from Zürich. The forces from St. Gallen and Appenzell came too late. Once again the commander in chief of the allied forces was Wilhelm Herter of Hertneck, and the allied cavalry followed the orders of Oswald of Thierstein, as in Grandson. On June 22, 1476, around mid-morning, Charles ordered his treasurer to pay the entire army. The orderly lines of the Burgundian army (circa 20’000, infantry, cavalry, artillery, English longbows) dissolved into chaos as soldiers scattered throughout the camp collecting their pay, eating their midday meal and seeking shelter from the rain. The skeleton force remaining at the Grünhag was surprised by the vanguard of the alliance (circa 5000 infantry and all the cavalry (1200)) emerging from the woods. They advanced exactly where Charles had predicted they would appear. Behind the vanguard followed the centre (circa 12’000 infantry) with the standards flanked by halberdiers and an outer ring of pikemen. The rearguard consisted of about 8000 densely packed halberdiers and pikemen. The diluted Burgundian forces at the Grünhag could resist for a short time only. After a brief arrest, they were swept away by the vanguard of the alliance. The allied forces advanced afterwards towards Murten and the besieger’s camp. In the Burgundian camp men rushed to reform and prepare for battle, but the compact allied battle formations brushed away everything. Charles’ dream of revenge ended that day. He lost about a third of his army. But, he could escape to Morges and then to Pontarlier, where he stayed for months in a deep depression.
Overview of the battle of Morat (1476), Big Chronicles of Burgundy, Diebold Schilling the Elder, Bern, around 1484, Facsimile p. 654, picture 158.
Detail from the overview of the battle of Morat (1476), cf. above, Cavalry of the alliance: forces from Austria, Lorraine, Prince-Bishopric of Basel, Strasbourg.
Detail from the overview of the battle of Morat (1476), cf. above, Wilhelm Herter of Hertneck (blue hat with white feathers) with his bodyguard (black dress).
After the battle of Morat, René II of Lorraine marched with a small army (circa 4500) towards Nancy and laid a siege to it (August 1476). He was able to take Nancy on October 8, 1476. On October 22, 1476, Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy, approached Nancy with a new army (strength: between 4’000 and 10’000) and besieged it. In the meantime René II of Lorraine contacted the four Alsatian Free Cities and Duke Sigismund of “Vorderösterreich” as well as the Swiss Confederates aiming at the formation of a new army to attack Charles the Bold at Nancy. The Confederates didn’t want to participate in this campaign. But, they allowed René II of Lorraine to recruit Confederate mercenaries for this operation. The four Alsatian Free Cities as well as Sigismund of Habsburg, Duke of “Vorderösterreich”, joined in with their regular troops. René could march towards Nancy with an army of between 12’000 and 20’000 men. On January 2, 1477, the allied army approached Nancy. For the battle itself, commander in chief of the allied forces was once again Wilhelm Herter von Hertneck. Count Oswald of Thierstein, the bailiff of Austria in Alsace, acted once again as commander of the allied cavalry. The forces of the alliance surprised the Burgundian besiegers, attacked them from two sides and crushed them completely. Charles the Bold died in this encounter.
Allied cavalry and mercenaries from the Swiss confederation on their march towards the battle of Nancy (1477), Chronicles of Luzern, Diebold Schilling the Younger, 1511-1513, Facsimile folio 117v (238) and folio 118r (239). Eventually participating cavalry from France did certainly not march under the flag of the Kingdom of France (blue and golden fleur de lys). The troops of Louis XI didn’t participate in the battles of Héricourt, Grandson, Morat and Nancy.
The battle of Nancy (1477), Chronicles of Luzern, Diebold Schilling the Younger, 1511-1513, Facsimile folio 119r (241). Final attack on the Burgundian forces. In the Centre: Charles the Bold in his “golden” armor.
After the death of Charles the Bold, the dynasty of the Valois Dukes of Burgundy died out. The Flemish territories of the Dukes of Burgundy subsequently became a possession of the Habsburgs, when Maximilian I of Habsburg (1459-1519, from 1477 iure uxoris Duke of Burgundy, 1486 King of the Romans/Germans, 1493 Archduke of Austria and 1508 Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire) married Charles’ only daughter Mary of Burgundy (1457-1482). The Duchy proper reverted to the crown of France under Louis XI. Some of the Confederate “Orte” wanted to take over the Franche-Comté. The discussions advanced slowly indeed and no consensus was found. In the meantime, Louis XI, King of France (1423-1461-1483) had invaded the Franche-Comté attaching it to its Kingdom. Later on by the treaty of Senlis (1493), Charles VIII, King of France (1470-1483-1498), son of Louis XI and Charlotte of Savoy, ceded the Franche-Comté to Maximilian’s son Philip I of Habsburg, the Handsome (1478-1506, from 1482 Duke of Burgundy, 1504 iure uxoris King of Castile and Leon). In doing so, Charles VIII, King of France, attempted to bribe the Emperor to remain neutral during Charles’s VIII planned invasion of Italy (cf. other posts of this blog: Italian Renaissance Wars I & II).
Inside the Confederacy itself, however, the outcome of the war did lead to internal conflict. The city “Orte” insisted on having the lion’s share of the proceeds (booty, money) since they had supplied the most troops. The country “Orte” resented this and the disputes almost led to war. They were settled by the “Stanser Verkommnis” of 1481.
Portrait of Charles the Bold, Duke of Burgundy (1433-1467-1477), Peter Paul Rubens (1577-1640), 1618.
Portrait of Mary of Burgundy (1457-1482), Michael Pacher (circa 1435-1498), oil on panel, circa 1479.
Coat of arms of Mary of Burgundy (1477-1482): 1. Lower Austria (Niederösterreich ), 2. Austria, 3. Valois - Burgundy, 4. Brabant, 5. Tyrol, 6. Flanders, 7. Styria (Steiermark), 8. Carinthia (Kärnten), 9. Carniola (Krain, today part of Slovenia), 10. Limburg.
Portrait of Philip I of Castile, the Handsome (1478-1506, from 1482 Duke of Burgundy, 1504 iure uxoris King of Castile and Leon), son of Maximilian I of Habsburg and Mary of Burgundy, Juan de Flandes (1460-1519).
Portrait of Charles VIII, King of France (1470-1483-1498), son of Louis XI and Charlotte of Savoy, école française 16th century.
References: H. Brauer-Gramm: Der Landvogt Peter von Hagenbach - Die burgundische Herrschaft am Oberrhein 1469-1474, Göttinger Bausteine zur Geschichtswissenschaft, Musterschmidt, Göttingen, 1957. Anne Le Cam: Charles le Téméraire, un homme et son rêve, Editions In Fine, 1992. G. Claerr-Stamm: Pierre de Hagenbach – Le destin tragique d’un chevalier sundgauvien au service de Charles le Téméraire, Société d’histoire du Sundgau, Alsagraphic 2000, 2004. Florens Deuchler: Die Burgunderbeute: Inventar der Beutestücke aus den Schlachten von Grandson, Murten und Nancy 1476/1477, Verlag Stämpfli, Bern, 1963. Petra Ehm-Schnocks: Burgund und das Reich, Spätmittelalterliche Aussenpolitik am Beispiel der Regierung Karls des Kühnen (1465-1477), Oldenburg, München, 2002. Jean Favier: Louis XI, Paris, Librairie Arthème Fayard, 2001. Emil Frey: Die Kriegstaten der Schweizer, Verlag F. Zahn, Neuenburg 1904. Historisch-Bibliographisches Lexikon der Schweiz, Neuenburg 1929. Historisches Lexikon der Schweiz, internet version, Oktober 2014. Paul Murray Kendall: Louis XI: The Universal Spider, Norton & Co. Inc., New York 1971. Gottlieb, Friedrich Ochsenbein: Die Urkunden der Belagerung und Schlacht bei Murten, 1876. Compte-rendu par Jean-Pierre Panigarola, ambassadeur du duc de Milan auprès du duc de Bourgogne, écrit à Saint-Claude, le 25 juin 1476. Emanuel von Roth: Die Feldzüge Karls des Kühnen, Herzogs von Burgund und seiner Erben, mit besonderem Bezug auf die Teilnahme der Schweizer an denselben, Schaffhausen, 1843-44. Theodor Schön: Herter von Dusslingen, Wilhelm, in Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie. Band 50, Dunker & Humblot, Leipzig 1905. Theodor Schön: Wilhelm Herter von Hertneck, in Reutlinger Geschichtsblätter, 1894. Jean-Pierre Soisson: Charles le Téméraire, Editions Grasset et Fasquelle, 1997. Richard Vaughan: Charles the Bold, The Last Valois Duke of Burgundy, Longman Group, London, 1973. From the internet only data were taken into account present in the English a/o French a/o German version and well corroborated by primary literature. Cf. also this blog, earlier posts.