Italian Renaissance Wars, Second Part, 1519 - 1559
Habsburg against Valois in Western Europe, from the election of Charles I of Spain to Holy Roman Emperor (1519) to the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis (1559)
- Kingdom of France
- Holy Roman Empire
- Spanish Empire
- States of Italy: Florence, Republic of Genoa, Duchy of Milan, Papal States, Duchy of Savoy, Republic of Siena, Republic of Venice
- Kingdom of England
- Ottoman Empire
1. ITALIAN WAR OF 1521-1526
from the election of Charles I of Spain to Holy Roman Emperor (1519) to the battle of Mohács (1526)
1) Kingdom of Castile (quadrant 1&4) and Leon (quadrant 2&3)
2) Kingdom of Aragon (left) and Sicily (right)
3) Duchy of Valois-Burgundy (quadrant 1&4: Touraine, quadrant 2&3: Duchy of Burgundy)
4) Flag of Granada
5) Lion of Flanders
6) Tyrolean Eagle
7) Flag of Austria
8) Lion of Brabant
In 1519, Charles I of Spain (1500-1558) was elected Emperor, by the way as Charles V, of the Holy Roman Empire (1530 crowned as emperor in Bologna by Pope Clement VII (Giulio di Giuliano de' Medici 1478-1523-1534), a position that Francis I of France (1494-1515-1547) had desired. Francis I used it as pretext for starting a general war against the Habsburgs.
In 1521, the French army invaded Italy but suffered crippling defeats at Bicocca (1522) and Sesia (1524) outmatched by Spanish arquebusier tactics used by the troops under Fernando de Avalos (1522) and Don Carlos de Lannoy (1524). In Sesia the French had to abandon their artillery. In 1525 Francis I personally led a French army into Lombardy. He was utterly defeated and captured at the battle of Pavia (1525, cf. this blog 1512 battle of Pavia I). Francis I was imprisoned in Spain and a series of diplomatic manoeuvres started rapidly aiming at a release of the French king from captivity.
Louise of Savoy (1476-1531), Francis’ mother, sent a special mission to the court of Suleiman the Magnificent (1494-1520-1566) in Istanbul, resulting in an Ottoman ultimatum to Charles V. Francis I signed the treaty of Madrid (January 1526), only to declare it invalid immediately after his return to France. Suleiman used the opportunity to invade Hungary defeating thoroughly Charles V’s allies at the battle of Mohács (August 1526).
References: Phillips, Charles & Alan Axelrod; Encyclopedia of Wars. New York: Facts on File, 2005. Marco Pellegrini, Le guerre d'Italia, Bologna, Il Mulino, 2009. From the internet only data were taken into account present in the english a/o french a/o german version and well corroborated by primary literature. Cf. also this blog earlier posts
2. ITALIAN WAR OF 1527-1529
from the League of Cognac (1526) to the Sack of Rome (1527), and the Treaty of Cambrai (1529), which was followed by the siege of Florence (1530)
In 1526, Pope Clement VII (Giulio Giuliano de’ Medici, 1478-1523-1534), frightened by the power of the Empire in Italy, formed the League of Cognac against Charles V, allying France with himself, the Republic of Venice, the Republic of Florence, Francesco II Sforza, Duke of Milan (1495-1522-1535). However, Venice declined to contribute troops, and Henry VIII of England (1491-1509-1547), thwarted in his desire to have the treaty signed in England, first refused to take part, but joined in after the Sack of Rome (1527).
League of Cognac:
The League quickly seized Lodi. Imperial troops marched into Lombardy as well, forced Francesco II Sforza to abandon Milan, and succeeded in being paid off by Bologna and Florence on their way to Rome. In 1527 Charles III, Duke of Bourbon (1490-1527) commander of the Spanish army, and Georg von Frundsberg (1473-1528), with his force of German landsknechts attacked Rome. The city was taken rapidly. Charles de Bourbon was killed, and the underpaid army thoroughly sacked the Holy City, forcing Pope Clement VII to flee into the Castel Sant’Angelo. The pope was forced to ransom himself.
In 1527, Francis I sent an army through Genoa - where Andrea Doria (1466-1560, admiral and condottiere) had quickly joined the French with the Genoese fleet - to Naples for an extended siege. Doria, however, soon deserted the French for Charles V, and as plague broke out in the French camp the siege collapsed, killing most of the French army. In the battle of Landriano (1529) the French army under Francis de Bourbon, Count de St. Pol (1491-1545), was destroyed by the Spanish troops commanded by Don Antonio de Leyva (1480-1536), leaving the Duchy of Milan under complete control of the Emperor.
After the defeat of his armies, Francis I sought peace with Charles V. The negotiations began in 1529 in the border city of Cambrai. They were conducted primarily between Francis’s mother Louise de Savoy (1476-1531) for the French and her sister-in-law Margaret of Austria, Princess of Asturias and Duchess of Savoy (1480-1530), for her nephew the Emperor (Paix des Dames). The Treaty of Cambrai removed Francis I from the war. The League of Cognac collapsed. In Italy, the only member from the League still resisting the Emperor was the Republic of Florence.
Portrait of Margaret of Austria (1480-1530), sister of Philip I of Castile and Leon "the Handsome"(1478-1506), Duchess of Savoy (1501-1530), Governor of the Habsburg Netherlands (1507-1515 and 1517-1530), painted as a widowby Bernard van Orley (1491/92-1542, court painter of Margaret of Austria 1520-1530)
In 1529, the Spanish-Imperial army marched to Florence and surrounded the city. After a siege of nearly ten months the city was captured, overthrowing the Republic of Florence and reinstalling Alessandro de’ Medici, “il Moro” (1510-1537) in 1530 as the ruler (after 1532 Duke) of Florence.
References: Wim Blockmans, Emperor Charles V, New York: Oxford University Press 2002. Francesco Giucardini, The History of Italy, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984. Francis Hackett, Francis the First, New York: Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1937. Angus Konstam, Pavia 1525, Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 1996. John Julius Norwich, A History of Venice, New York: Vintage Books, 1989. From the internet only data were taken into account present in the english a/o french a/o german version and well corroborated by primary literature. Cf. also this blog, posts 2013.
3. ITALIAN WAR 1536-1538
from the death of Francesco II Sforza (1535) to the naval battle of Preveza (1538)
In 1535 Francesco II Sforza (1495-1535) died. He was the last of the family to hold the title of Duke of Milan (1521-1535). His successor was Philip (1527-1598), son of Emperor Charles V (1500-1519-1558). In 1556, after the abdication of his father Charles V, he became King of Spain as Philip II. Francis I of France, still pursuing his Visconti claims on the Duchy of Milan, invaded Italy, capturing Turin, but failed to take Milan. Savoy and Piedmont remained under French control until 1559. In response, Charles V invaded Provence, advancing to Aix-en-Provence, but withdrew to Spain rather than attacking the heavily fortified Avignon.
Flag of the Tercio Morados Viejos, Cross of Burgundy. Tercios are mixed Spanish infantry units with pikemen and arquebusiers, officially introduced by Emperor Charles V in 1534.
End of 1536, France in alliance with the Ottoman Empire had a Franco-Turkish fleet stationed in Marseille, threatening Genoa. The Ottoman admiral of the fleet Barbaros Hayreddin (Khayr ad-Din) Pasha (1478-1546) raided the Italian coast in 1537, providing only limited assistance to the French.
Francis I and Charles V ultimately made peace with the Truce of Nice in 1538. Savoy and Piedmont with Turin remained in French hands, effecting finally no significant changes in the map of Italy. The peace was extraordinary because Charles and Francis refused to sit in the same room together, such was their hatred. The negotiations were carried out by Pope Paul III (1468-1534-1549, Alessandro Farnese) going from room to room searching for an agreement.
The Truce of Nice, 1538, between Francis I and Charles V, mediated by Pope Paul III, painting by Taddeo Zuccari (1529-1566)
Charles V turned his efforts against the Ottoman Empire. He took part in a new Holy League bringing together the naval forces of Charles V, the Republic of Venice, the Papal States, the Republic of Genoa and the knights of Malta, under the leadership of the Genoese admiral Andrea Doria (1466-1560) ). In the naval battle of Preveza (1538) the Holy League did take a crushing defeat. The Ottoman admiral Babaros Hayreddin Pasha (1478-1546) succeded in accomplishing a decisive Ottoman victory.
References: John Dalberg-Acton et al.,The Cambridge Modern History, Volume 1 : The Renaissance. Cambridge University Press. Wim Blockmans, Emperor Charles V, New York: Oxford University Press 2002. Francesco Giucardini, The History of Italy, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984. Francis Hackett, Francis the First, New York: Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1937. Angus Konstam, Pavia 1525, Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 1996. John Julius Norwich, A History of Venice, New York: Vintage Books, 1989. Tercios de España, Fernando Martínez Lainez, José María Sánchez de Toca, editorial Edaf. From the internet only data were taken into account present in the english a/o french a/o german version and well corroborated by primary literature. Cf. also this blog, posts 2013.
4. ITALIAN WAR OF 1542-1546
from the declaration of war in 1542 by Francis I, King of France, against Emperor Charles V to the death of Francis I and Henry VIII, King of England (1547)
The French launched a two front offensive against Charles V. In the north, they attacked Luxembourg, briefly capturing the city, and in the south, they unsuccessfully besieged the city of Perpignan in northern Spain. Due to the French refusal to pay the various pensions, which were owed to Henry VIII, King of England (1491-1509-1547), and the potential of French interference in Scotland, relations between Francis I (1494-1515-1547) and Henry VIII collapsed. Henry VIII and Charles V (1500-1519-1558) signed a treaty of offensive alliance, and in 1543 Henry VIII declared war against France. William, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg (1516-1539-1592), joined in on Francis’s side, invading Brabant, but was attacked by Charles V, and had to surrender signing the Treaty of Venlo (1543) with Charles V.
Portrait of Catherine of Aragon (1485-1536), Henry's first queen (1509-1533), daughter of Queen Isabella I of Castile and King Ferdinand II of Aragon, mother of Mary I, Queen of England (1516-1553-1558), by Lucas Hornebolte, 16th century
Portrait of Anne Boleyn (c.1501-1536), Henry's second queen (1533-1536), mother of Queen Elizabeth I of England (1533-1558-1603), a later copy of an original painted c.1534
Jeanne d'Albret (1528-1572), painted by François Clouet, 1570, wife of the Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg
But wasn’t Jeanne d’Albret the mother of the French King Henri IV? What happened?
She was born in the palace of the royal court at Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1528). Her mother was the sister of King Francis I of France. Jeanne was described as having been a “frivolous and highly-spirited princess”. She also, at an early age, had displayed a tendency to be both stubborn and unyielding. In 1541, when Jeanne was 12, her uncle, King Francis I, forced her to marry William the Rich, Duke of Jülich-Cleves-Berg. Despite having been whipped into obedience, she, nevertheless, continued to protest. At her wedding she was sumptuously attired, wearing a golden crown, a silver and gold skirt encrusted with precious stones, and a crimson satin cloak richly trimmed with ermine. But, she still resisted and had to be carried bodily to the altar by Anne, Duke of Montmorency (1493-1551-1567), Constable of France. The marriage, being still unconsummated in 1546, was declared invalid by papal decree absolute (Pope Paul III). In 1548, Jeanne married Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme (1518-1537-1562), father of King Henri IV of France (1553-1589-1610), the first Bourbon king. When Jeanne’s father died in 1555, she inherited the Kingdom of Navarre and Antoine de Bourbon became King of Navarre iure uxoris (1555-1562). She later declared Calvinism the official religion of her kingdom after publicly embracing the teachings of Jean Calvin (1509-1564) on Christmas Day 1560. She was the acknowledged spiritual and political leader of the French Huguenot movement, and a key figure in the French Wars of Religion.
Portait of Anne, Duke of Montmorency (1493-1551-1567), Honorary Knight of the Garter, since 1538 Constable of France, by Jean Clouet (1480-1541), 1530
Portrait of Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme (1518-1537-1562) and King of Navarre iure uxoris (1555-1562), by François Clouet (1510-1572, son of Jean Clouet), 1557
Let’s go back to the Italian War of 1542-1546.
In 1543, Sultan Suleiman I the Magnificent (1494-1520-1566) had placed hundred galleys of the Ottoman fleet at the disposal of Francis I. The joint Franco-Ottoman fleet anchored off the Imperial City of Nice and landed troops at Villefranche. A siege of the city followed, and Nice fell, although the citadel held out until the siege was lifted.
In Piedmont, the French and the Imperial army fought one of the few pitched battles of the period at Ceresole (1544). The French were victorious, but the invasion of France itself by Charles V and Henry VIII forced Francis to recall much of his army from Piedmont. Later in the same year, the Imperial army under Alfonso d’Avalos achieved a victory over an Italian mercenary army in French service at the battle of Serravalle. This brought campaigning in Italy to an end.
In spring 1544, two Imperial armies invaded France. One captured Luxembourg and went on to besiege Saint-Dizier. The second army soon joined the first in the siege of Saint-Dizier. The Emperor Charles V had come to overthrow “a tyrant allied to the Turks”. In August, Saint-Dizier capitulated, allowing the Imperial troops to subsequently take Epernay, Châtillon-sur-Marne, Château-Thierry, and Soissons. In September 1544 Charles V finally halted his advance and turned back. Meanwhile, Henry VIII had sent an army to Calais and ordered to attack Boulogne. The city was besieged, and in September 1544 the defenders surrendered. Henry VIII returned to England and the English army withdrew to Calais, leaving some 4000 men to defend Boulogne. The Dauphin’s army besieged Boulogne without final result, and Henry VIII refused to consider returning Boulogne to the French. He insisted that Francis I abandon his support of the Scots.
Francis now embarked on an attempt to attack England itself. An army was assembled in Normandy, and a fleet was prepared at le Havre. In May 1545, a French expeditionary force landed in Scotland, and in July the massive French fleet left le Havre and entered the Solent, briefly engaging the English fleet, but to no apparent effect. The major casualty of the skirmish was the sinking of the Mary Rose, the vice flagship of King Henry VIII. The French landed on the Isle of Wight and at Seaford, but these operations were abortive. The French fleet returned to blockading Boulogne.
The encampment of the English Forces near Portsmouth, the engraving shows the battle in the Solent off Portsmouth in 1545. The ships on the left are the French fleet with the English ships in the centre and at the right of the picture. The land at the top of the image is the Isle of White and the southern shore of Portsmouth is at the bottom. The sea in the middle is the Solent. Engraving from a coeval (1545-1548) painting at Cowdrey House in Midhurst, Sussex.
The sinking of Mary Rose in the Solent (1545), section of the engraving showing the battle in the Solent off Portsmouth
By September 1545, the war was a virtual stalemate. Both sides, running ruinously low on funds and troops, unsuccessfully sought help from the German Protestants. In June 1546, the Treaty of Ardres was signed on behalf of Francis I as well as on behalf of Henry VIII. Henry would retain Boulogne until 1554, then return it in exchange for two million écus, and Francis would resume payment of Henry’s pensions. The war was the costliest conflict of both Francis’s and Henry’s reigns. The need for funds led to an introduction of a series of new taxes in both countries. The Emperor was engaged in the Schmalkaldic War (1546-1547) against the German Protestants, and for Suleiman I, the conclusion of the truce of Adrianople in 1547 brought his struggle against the Habsburgs to a temporary halt. Henry VIII died on 28 January 1547; on 31 March, Francis I followed.
References: Jean-Pierre Babelon, Henri IV, Paris, Fayard, 1982. Wim Blockmans, Emperor Charles V, New York: Oxford University Press 2002. Francesco Giucardini, The History of Italy, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984. Francis Hackett, Francis the First, New York: Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1937. Robert J. Knecht, Renaissance Warrior and Patron: The reign of Francis I, Cambridge University Press, 1994. Nancy Ryman Roelker, Queen of Navarre, Jeanne d’Albret: 1528-1572, Cambridge Massachusetts, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1968. J.J. Scarisbrick, Henry VIII, London, the Folio Society, 2004. Mark Strage, Women of Power: The Life of Catherine de’Medici, New York and London, 1976. From the internet only data were taken into account present in the english a/o french a/o german version and well corroborated by primary literature. Cf. also this blog, posts 2013.
5. ITALIAN WAR OF 1551-1559
from the accession of Henri II to the throne of France (1547) to the abdication of Emperor Charles V (1556) and the peace of Cateau-Cambrésis (1559)
In 1551, Henry II, King of France (1519-1547-1559), who had succeeded Francis I (1494-1515-1547) to the throne declared war against the Emperor Charles V (1500-1519-1558) with the intent of recapturing Italy and ensuring French, rather than Habsburg, domination of European affairs. Henry II had sealed a treaty with Sultan Suleiman I the Magnificient (1494-1520-1566) in order to cooperate against the Habsburgs in the Mediterranean.
Pro memoria: The Valois dynasty ruled France from 1328-1589, i.e. from the beginning of the Hundred Years’ War to “Paris vaut bien une messe”.
In 1328, the Valois dynasty began with Philip VI (1293-1328-1350). There were two chief claimants to the throne of France, Philip VI from the House of Valois and Edward III from the House of Plantagenet. Philip VI was a grandson Philip III, King of France from the House of Capet (1245-1270-1285). His father, a son of Philip III of France, was Charles I, Count of Valois (1270-1284-1325), founder of the House of Valois and brother of Philip IV le Bel, King of France (1268-1285-1314). The other pretender was Edward III, King of England from the House of Plantagenet (1312-1327-1377). His grandfather was Philip IV le Bel, King of France from the House of Capet (1268-1285-1314). Isabella of France (1295-1358), a daughter of Philip IV le Bel and Queen consort of England (1308-1327), was his mother. The assemblies of the French barons and prelates as well as the University of Paris decided that Edward III should be excluded according to Salic Law. This led to the Hundred Years’ War (1328 or 1337-1453).
Miniature of the battle of Sluys, 1340, Plantagenet victory, from Jean Froissart's Chronicles, 15th century
Miniature of the battle of Crécy, 1346, Plantagenet victory, from Jean Froissart's Chronicles, 15th century
Let’s make a big jump to the end of the Valois dynasty, i.e. to the family of Henry II, King of France (1519-1547-1559).
He was a son of King Francis I of France (1494-1515-1547) and Claude (1499-1524), Duchess regnant of Britanny (1514-1524) and Queen consort of France (1515-1524), also known as “La Reine Claude” (cf. “Reine-Claude” plum = greengage). His wife was Catherine de'Medici (1519-1589), Queen consort of France (1547-1559). They had ten children, seven of whom survived to adulthood.
1. Francis II, King of France (1544-1559-1560) and King consort of Scotland (1558-1560), married in 1558 Mary (1542-1587), Queen regnant of Scotland (1542-1567) and Queen consort of France (1559-1560).
2. Elizabeth (1545-1568), Queen consort of Spain (1559-1568), married in 1559 Philip II, King of Spain (1527-1556-1598).
3. Claude (1547-1575), Duchess consort of Lorraine (1559-1575), married in 1559 Charles III, Duke of Lorraine (1543-1545-1608)
4. Charles IX, King of France (1550-1560-1574), married in 1570 Elizabeth of Austria (1554-1592), Queen consort of France (1570-1574).
5. Henri III, King of France (1551-1574-1589) and elected monarch of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1573-1575), married in 1575 Louise of Lorraine (1553-1601), Queen consort of France (1575-1589). The marriage failed to produce children. He was the last King of the Valois dynasty.
6. Margaret of Valois, also known as “La Reine Margot” (1553-1615), Queen consort of Navarre (1572-1599) and Queen consort of France (1589-1599), married in 1572 Henry III, King of Navarre, (1553-1572-1610), the future Henry IV, King of France (1553-1589-1610), the first French king from the House of Bourbon, a branch of the Capetian dynasty. The wedding took place on the parvis of Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris. The groom, a Huguenot, had to remain outside the cathedral during the religious ceremony, and the groom’s mother, Jeanne d’Albret, Queen regnant of Navarre (1528-1555-1572) and Duchess consort of Vendôme (1528-1548-1572) could not assist, as she died under suspicious circumstances before the marriage could take place. Some suspected that a pair of gloves sent to Jeanne as a wedding gift from Margaret’s mother, Catherine de’Medici, had been poisoned. In reality she died of tuberculosis June 9, 1572. In accepting the throne (1589), Henri found it prudent to abjure his Calvinist faith (“Paris vaut bien une messe.”). He promulgated the Edict of Nantes in 1598, which guaranteed religious liberties to Protestants, thereby ending the Wars of Religion. The couple remained childless, and the marriage was annulled in 1599. In 1600, Henri IV, King of France, married Marie de’Medici (1575-1642), Queen consort of France and Navarre (1600-1610). He escaped at least 12 assassination attempts. In 1610, he died murdered by the assassin François Ravaillac, a fanatic catholic, and was succeeded by his son Louis XIII, King of France (1601-1610-1643).
7. Francis, Duke of Anjou (1555-1576-1584)
Let’s go back to the Italian war of 1551-1559.
In 1552, when Henri II attacked Charles V in the Lorraine, the Ottomans sent 100 galleys to the Western Mediterranean, which were accompanied by three French galleys under Gabriel de Luetz d’Aramon. The fleet raided the coast of Calabria, in southern Italy, captured the city of Reggio, and managed to vanquish the Genoese Fleet under Andrea Doria in front of the island of Ponza. The fleet also invaded Corsica (1533) and the Balearic islands (1558).
Portrait of the French ambassador to the Ottoman Sublime Porte Gabriel Luetz d'Aramon, by Titian (1488/90-1576), 1541-1542, oil on canvas
On the continent, Henry II allied with German Protestant princes at the treaty of Chambord in 1552. An offensive into Lorraine was successful. Henry II captured the three episcopal cities Metz, Toul, and Verdun and secured them by defeating the invading Habsburg army at the battle of Renty in 1554. However, the French forces and the troops of Siena under the command of Piero Strozzi (1510-1558) were defeated at the battle of Marciano (1554, also known as battle of Scannagallo) by Gian Giacomo Medici. Siena fell in 1555 and eventually became part of the Grand Duchy of Tuscany founded by Cosimo I de’Medici.
Cosimo I de'Medici, Duke of Florence (1519-1537-1574, from 1569 Grand Duke of Tuscany), portrait by Agnolo Bronzino (1503-1572), c.1545
In 1556, Charles V (1500-1519-1558) abdicated and split the Habsburg empire between his son Philip II, King of Spain (1527-1556-1598) and his younger brother Ferdinand (1503-1564) ruling the Austrian hereditary lands of the Habsburgs. Ferdinand succeeded Charles V as Ferdinand I Holy Roman Emperor in 1558. Charles V retired to the monastery of Yuste in Extremadura.
The focus of the war shifted to Flanders, where Philip II, King of Spain, in conjunction with Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy, also known as Iron-Head (1528-1553-1580), defeated the French at Saint Quentin (1557). England’s entry into the war later that year led to the French capture of Calais, and French armies plundered Spanish possessions in the Low Countries. Nonetheless, Henry II was forced to accept a peace agreement in which he renounced any further claims to Italy. The wars ended for other reasons, including the Double Default of 1557, when the Spanish Crown, followed quickly by the French, defaulted on their debts. In addition, both sides had to confront Protestantism at home, which both hoped to crush.
Portrait of Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy (1528-1553-1580), by Juan Pantoja de la Cruz (1553-1608)
Coat of arms du "Haut et puissant prince, messire Emmanuel Philibert, Duc de Savoye, prince de Piémont", Armorial plate from the Order of the Golden Fleece, 1559, Gent
In 1559, the peace of Cateau-Cambrésis was signed by the ambassadors of Henry II of France, and Philip II of Spain at Le Cateau-Cambrésis, around twenty kilometers south-east of Cambrai. The treaty ended the wars.
France restored Piedmont and Savoy to the duke of Savoy, and Corsica to the Republic of Genoa, but retained Saluzzo in Piedmont, as well as Calais and the bishoprics of Metz, Toul, and Verdun. However, the French position would soon be jeopardized by the Wars of Religion ravaging France.
Spain retained the Franche-Comté. The treaty also confirmed Spanish direct control of Milan, Naples, Sicily, Sardinia, and the State of Presidi, and indirectly of northern Italy, through dominance of the rulers of Tuscany, Genoa, and other minor states. The Pope was their natural ally. The only truly independent entities on Italian soil were Savoy and the Republic of Venice. Spanish control of Italy lasted until the early eighteen century. Spain was left as the sole dominant power in Italy.
England fared poorly during the war, and the loss of Calais, its last stronghold on the continent, damaged its reputation.
Two marriages were arranged. Emmanuel Philibert, Duke of Savoy (1528-1553-1580), married in 1559 Margaret of France, suo iure Duchess of Berry (1523-1550-1574) and Duchess consort of Savoy (1559-1574), the sister of Henry II, King of France (1519-1547-1559), and Philip II of Spain married Elisabeth of France (1545-1568), Queen consort of Spain (1559-1568), the eldest daughter of Henry II, King of France.
Picture of Margaret de France, suo iure Duchess of Berry (1523-1550-1574) and Duchess consort of Savoy (1559-1568), style Clouet, 1876
Elisabeth of Valois (1545-1568), Queen consort of Spain (1559-1568), eldest daughter of Henry II of France and Catherine de'Medici, by Juan Pantoja de la Cruz (1553-1608, 1605
In 1559, Henry II of France (1519-1547-1559) died during a tournament when a sliver from the shattered lance of Gabriel Montgomery, captain of the Scottish Guard at the French Court, pierced his eye and entered his brain.
References: Jean-Pierre Babelon, Henri IV, Paris, Fayard, 1982. Jeremy Black, European warfare, 1494-1660, p. 311. Henry M. Baird, The Huguenots and Henry of Navarre, New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1886, at Google Books. Wim Blockmans, Emperor Charles V, New York: Oxford University Press, 2002. J.H. Elliott, Europe Divided: 1559-1598, HarperCollins, 1968. Francesco Giucardini, The History of Italy, Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984. F.P.G. Guizot, A Popular History of France, 1787-1874, gutenberg.org. Francis Hackett, Francis the First, New York: Doubleday, Doran & Co., 1937. Alistair Horne, Seven Ages of Paris, Random House, 2004. Robert J. Knecht, Renaissance Warrior and Patron: The reign of Francis I, Cambridge University Press, 1994. Robert Jean Knecht, Catherine de’Medici, Longman,1997, 151. William Miller, The Ottoman Empire and Its Successors, 1801-1927, Routledge, 1966. Pierre Miquel, Les Guerres de religion, Paris, Club France Loisirs, 1980. Nancy Ryman Roelker, Queen of Navarre, Jeanne d’Albret: 1528-1572, Cambridge Massachusetts, Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1968. J.J. Scarisbrick, Henry VIII, London, the Folio Society, 2004. Mark Strage, Women of Power: The Life of Catherine de’Medici, New York and London, 1976. Sharon Turner, The History of England, p.311 at Google Books. From the internet only data were taken into account present in the english a/o french a/o german version and well corroborated by primary literature. Cf. also this blog, posts 2013.